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  • Phases of the Construction Project

    Generally,a Construction Project is mainly divided into four Phases. Depending upon the complexity of the project, It is further classified into sub Heads.

    1.    Pre construction phases

    All the phases largely depends on this phase. Team Leader/Project Manager considers the Pre-Construction phase to be the most important phase in order for a project to be successfully executed. It is during this phase critical planning; including scheduling, budgeting, value engineering and quality decisions are made that will have a significant impact upon construction and the final cost of the project.

    Scheduling

    Scheduling is the graphical representation which shows the phasing rate of construction activities with the starting & completion date and the sequential relationship among the various activities.

    In this Detailed Quantification of the work is done by the help of Architectural & Structural drawings & the project activities are divided into tasks for the ease of monitoring. The Manpower & the materials are worked out for the completion of each task & the Baseline Programming is made. The day to day work activities represented in form of Gantt Chartis Known as Scheduling.

    According to the project manager, schedule changes can affect any area of the project and can have downstream impacts. During scheduling, managers have to confirm the availability of the resources before task, haveto communicate with responsibilities to everyone involved in the project, have to accurately estimate how long each step will take, and taking risk factors into consideration.

    Budgetingandfinancing

    Budgeting finances for project begins with the creation of a detailed and accurate forecast of total anticipated costs. It is mandatory to create a contingency fund which will be used in emergency situations such as work delays due to Unforeseen Circumstances, bad weather, underestimated resource costs and issues with suppliers. The budgetary goal is to complete the project at or below the estimation, without accessing contingency funds.

    In case of government project total amount of budget generally is not sanctioned at a time. It may come in certain installments. After completion of one phase, another instalment of money is sanctioned for the project.Budget Overrun should not come into existence, if the Project budgets are made by a Skilled Quantity Surveyor & in the guidance of Experience Project Manager.

    2.    Initial construction phases

    Construction of Frame Work

    This stage constitutes of Construction of Foundation depending upon the type of soil encountered. The Structural Frame either of RCC or Steel is taken up along with the Walls & floor Slab.

    Installation of utilities

    There is need to have water, electric power, and toilet facilities available during the Pre & Post construction process. If there is an already made connection to municipal water and sewer, the pipes are to be laidaccordingly to connect the water and sewer mains.

    Drainage system

    The overall drainage system needs to deal with the removal of two types of water: foul water from waste, wastage from the chemicals and surface water from rainfall.The task of creating an effective drainage system can now be carried out in a quick, accurate and straightforward manner.

    Installation of windows, doors, exterior walls and Flooring

    Windows and doors are important features in any project. They are installed in openings framed into walls and consequently are frequently referred to as “openings” in building codes and engineering standards. The flooring is also incorporated in this stage.

    3.     Finishing Phase

    Mechanical system installed: plumbing, electrical

    Electricity is distributed throughout each floor via a network of electrical wire, conduits, switches and electrical panels. Main distribution panels are located in mechanical equipment rooms and electric closets and panels are located on individual floors for local distribution. There should be an emergency power system to provide backup electrical supply if the normal source of power fail.

    Interior finishing

    Plastering, Putty, Distempering, False flooring along with the final finishing of floor is taken up in this stage.

    Exterior landscaping:

     Plantation of trees, Construction of walkway and other landscape items are taken up in this stage

    4.    Post construction phases

    Final finishing touches

    In this stage, the overall activities are strictly scrutinized by the company. In the working, there is a lot of experience where all the activities cannotbe done in an effective way. There may be failure in some extent. Scrutinizing those things properly is the major role played by the project manager. It will take some days for the company to give a finishing touch at last.

    Completion inspection and handover

    There will be an inspection committee engaged by the Government/Client whose primary responsibility is to examine the completeness of buildings before handing over. If there are any problems identified by the committee, the company will be forced to make solution of that problem. When the inspection is completed perfectly, handover of the building will be made to the government/Client.

    Niraj Soni

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